X-linked retinoschisis is a genetic eye disease caused by mutations in the RS1 gene, a gene responsible for making a protein which acts as a kind of "glue" that keeps the layers in the retina together. Because it is an X-linked recessive condition, only males develop the disease, while females are carriers. Without the "glue," the retinal layers begin to separate, causing decreased central vision in both eyes, and up to 20% of patients will experience a retinal detachment at some point during their lives.
Let's look at some images of the retina, first from a normal eye, and then from a patient with X-linked retinoschisis.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor eyedrops (e.g. dorzolamide) are effective for some patients in reducing the amount of cystic spaces within the retinal layers and in improving visual acuity. Regular eye exams and careful monitoring at home for symptoms of retinal detachment -- such as decreased peripheral vision, floaters, or flashing lights -- are crucial for patients with X-linked retinoschisis.